Britons Voting Abroad

Links to Academic Publications and Research Papers

Where these are available free online you can access them by clicking on the title.
  • On expatriate voting
  • Barry, K. (2006), ‘Home and Away: the Construction of Citizenship in an Emigration Context’, New York University Law Review 81, no.1, pp12-59.
  • Bauböck, R. (2015), ‘Morphing the Demos into the right shape. Normative principles for enfranchising resident aliens and expatriate citizens’, Democratization, 22:5, pp.820-839.
  • Bauböck, R. (2009), ‘The Rights and Duties of External Citizenship’ Citizenship Studies, Vol.13, No.5, pp.475-499.
  • Bauböck, R. (2007) ‘Stakeholder Citizenship and Transnational Political Participation: A Normative Evaluation of External Voting’ Fordham Law Review 2393, Vol. 75 Issue 5, pp. 2393-2447.
  • Bauböck, R. (2005), ‘Expansive Citizenship: Voting Beyond Territory and Membership’, Political Science and Politics, Vol. 38, No.4, pp.683-687.
  • Bauböck, R. (2003), ‘Towards a Political Theory of Migrant Transnationalism’, International Migration Review, Vol.37, No.3, pp.700-723.
  • Beckman, L. (2006), ‘Citizenship and Voting Rights: Should Resident Aliens Vote?’ Citizenship Studies, 10, pp.153-165.
  • Caramani, D., Grotz, F. (2015), ‘Beyond citizenship and residence? Exploring the extension of voting rights in the age of globalisation’, Democratization, 22:5, pp.799-819.
  • Caramani, D. Strijbis, O. (2013), ‘Discrepant Electorates: the Inclusiveness of Electorates and its Impact on the Representation of Citizens’, Parliamentary Affairs, Vol. 66, pp.384-404.
  • Chander, A. (2006), ‘Homeward Bound’, New York University School of Law.
  • Collyer, M. (2013) ed. Emigration Nations: the policies and ideologies of emigrant engagement, Palgrave.
  • Collyer, M. (2014) ‘A geography of extra-territorial citizenship : explanations of emigrant voting’ Migration Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp.55-72.
  • Collyer, M. and Vathi, Z. (2007) ‘Patterns of extra-territorial voting’ Migration DRC Working Paper T22
  • Earnest, D.C. (2015), ‘The enfranchisement of resident aliens: variations and explanations’, in Democratization, 22:5, pp.861-883.
  • Fitzgerald, D. (2006), ‘Rethinking Emigrant Citizenship’, New York University School of Law.
  • Gabrielli, L., Jaulin, T., Sanchez-Montijano, E., Zapata-Barrero, R., (2013), ‘The political participation of immigrants in host countries : an interpretative framework from the perspective of origin countries and societies’,  INTERACT Research Report.
  • Gabrielli, L., Gsir, S., Zapata-Barrero, R., (2017), ‘Political and Civic Participation of Immigrants in Host Countries: An Interpretative Framework from the Perspective of the Origin Countries and Societies’, chapter in Migrant Integration Between Homeland and Host Society, Vol. 1, Springer International Publishing.
  • Hardman, H. and Dickson, B. (eds) (2017), Electoral Rights in Europe. Advances and Challenges, Routledge.
  • Honohan, I.  Hutcheson, D. (2015), ‘Transnational Citizenship & Access to Electoral Rights: Defining the Demos in European States’ pp. 59-79, in Elkink, E. et al (eds) The Act of Voting: Identities, Institutions & Locale, Routledge.
  • Hutcheson, D., Arrighi, J.T. (2015), “Keeping Pandora’s (ballot) box half-shut”: a comparative inquiry into the institutional limits of external voting in EU Member States,’ Democratization, 22:5, pp.884-905.
  • Jeffers, K. (ed), (2012) Inclusive Democracy in Europe, European University Institute & Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European Union Democracy Observatory - EUDO
  • Kull, C.A. (2008), ‘Who should vote where? Geography and fairness in migrant voting rights’, Geographical Research, 46 (4), pp.459-465.
  • Lafleur, J.-M. (2013). Transnational Politics and the State. The External Voting Rights of Diasporas, Routledge.
  • Lafleur, J.M., (2015 ), ‘The Enfranchisement of Citizens Abroad: Variations & Explanations’, Democratization, 22: 5, 840-860.
  • Lafleur, J.-M. (2011). ‘Why do states enfranchise citizens abroad? Comparative insights from Mexico, Italy and Belgium’. Global Networks, 11(4), 481-501.
  • Lappin, R. (2016), ‘The Right to Vote for Non-Resident Citizens in Europe’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 65 Issue 4, pp.859-894.
  • Lopez-Guerra, C. (2005), ‘Should expatriates vote?’ The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol.13 No 2, pp.216-234.
  • Owen, D. (2011) ‘Transnational citizenship and the democratic state: modes of membership and voting rights’, [in special issue: Democratic Citizenship and its Futures] Critical Review of International  Social and Political Philosophy, 14, (5), 641-663.
  • Pogonyl, S. (2013), ‘Four Patterns of Non-resident Voting Rights’, Ethnopolitics, Vol.13, Issue 2, pp.122-140.
  • Rhodes, S. Harutyunyan, A. (2010), ‘Extending Citizenship to Emigrants: Democratic Contestation and a New Global Norm’, International Political Science Review, Vol.31, Issue 4, pp.470-493.
  • Rojas, H.S. ‘A Comparative Study of the Overseas Voting Laws and Systems of Selected Countries’’, Development Associates Occasional Paper No. 17.
  • Rubio-Marin, R. (2006), ‘Transnational Politics and the Democratic National-State: Normative Challenges of Expatriate Voting and Nationality Retention of Emigrants’, New York University Law Review, 81, pp.117-147.
  • Song, S. (2009), ‘Democracy and noncitizen voting rights’, Citizenship Studies, Vol.13 No.6, pp.607-620.
  • Spiro, P. (2006), ‘Perfecting Political Diaspora’, New York University Law Review, 81 no.1, pp.207-233.
  • Stokes, G. (2004), ‘Transnational citizenship: problems of definition, culture and democracy’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 17, No.1, pp.119-135.
  • Tatham, A.F. (2016), ‘The Legitimacy of Discriminatory Disenfranchisement? The Impact of the Rules on the Right to Vote in the Bremain/Brexit Referendum’, Perspectives on Federalism, Vol.8 Issue 1.
  • Zissis, D. and Lekkas, D. (eds), (2014), Design, Development, & Use of Secure Electronic Voting Systems, IGI Global, Hershey, PA.

  • On overseas constituencies
  • Collyer, M. (2014), ‘Inside out? Directly elected ‘special representation’ of emigrants in national legislatures and the role of popular sovereignty’, Political Geography, 41, pp.64-73.
  • Lisi, M. et al, (2015), ‘Out of Sight, Out of Mind? External Voting and the Political Representation of Portuguese Emigrants’, South European Society and Politics, Vol.20, No.2, pp.265-285.
  • Peltoniemi, J. (2016), ‘Overseas Voters and Representational Deficit: Regional Representation Challenged by Emigration’, in Representation, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp.295-309. (on Finland)
  • Sampugnaro, R. (2017), ‘The Italian Foreign Constituency and its MPs’, Contemporary Italian Politics, Vol. 9 Issue 2, pp.162-184.

  • On specific countries


  • Collard, S. (2013), ‘The expatriate vote in the French Presidential and Legislative Elections of 2012: A Case of Unintended Consequences’, Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 213-33.
  • Collard, S. Fabre, E. (2014) ‘Electronic voting in the French legislative elections of 2012’ in Dimitrios Zissis and Dimitrios Lekkas (eds), Design, Development, & Use of Secure Electronic Voting Systems, IGI Global, Hershey, PA.
  • Drake, H. & Collard, S. (2008), ‘A Case Study of Intra-EU MIgration: 20 Years of ‘Brits’ in the Pays d’Auge, Normandy, France’, in French Politics, 6, 214-233.


  • Honohan, I. (2011), ‘Should Irish Emigrants Have Votes? External Voting in Ireland’, Irish Political Studies, Vol.26 No. 4, pp.545-561.


  • Battiston, S. Mascitelli, B. (2008), ‘Full voting rights for Italian citizens overseas: Citizenship gone global, Italianness or Italian party politics?’ in S.Bronitt and K.Rubenstein (eds) Citizenship in a post-national world, Law and Policy Papers 29, pp.1-23.
  • Battiston, S. Mascitelli, B. (2008), ‘The challenges to democracy and citizenship surrounding the vote to Italians overseas’ Modern Italy, Vol.13, No.3, pp.261-280.
  • Boccagni P. (2011), Reminiscences, patriotism, participation. Approaching external voting in Ecuadorian immigration to Italy, International Migration, 49(3): 76-98.
  • Mascitelli, B., Steele, R., Battiston, S. (2013), The 2001 Italian expatriate vote: Was it worth it? A view from the Africa-Asia-Oceania-Antarctica college, Peter Lang.
  • Mascitelli, B. Battiston, S. (2008), The Italian Expatriate Vote in Australia: Democratic Right, Democratic Wrong or Political Opportunism?, Ballan, Vic. Connor Court Publishing.
  • Tintori, G. (2011), “The Transnational Political Practices of «Latin American Italians»”, International Migration, 49 (3): 168-188.


  • Lafleur, J.-M, & Calderon Chelius, L. (2011). ‘Assessing Emigrant Participation in Home Country Elections: The Case of Mexico’s 2006 Presidential Election’. International Migration, 49(3), 99-124.



  • Constantine, S., (2003) ‘British emigration to the empire-commonwealth since 1880: From overseas settlement to diaspora?’ in Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 28(3), 16-35.
  • Hampshire, J. (2013), ‘An Emigrant Nation without an Emigrant Policy: The Curious Case of Britain’, in Collyer, M. (ed), Emigrant Nations. Policies and Ideologies of Emigrant Engagement, Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hampshire, J. (2005) Citizenship & Belonging, Palgrave Macmillan.

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